VKL 100

Dilution system with dilution factor 1:100


VKL 100: Verdünnungssystem mit Verdünnungsfaktor 1:100, Konzentration von Aerosolen

VKL 100

Dilution system with dilution factor 1:100

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The VKL 100 series of dilution systems can reduce the concentration of aerosols by the dilution factor 1:100, also of very highly concentrated aerosols, in a defined and reliable way.

The Palas® VKL 100 dilution systems are used in vertical operation for the particle size range up to 2 µm for applications in the clean room. Dilution factors of up to 1:100,000 are achieved by cascading several VKL systems.

Functional principle

VKL 10 Principle_eng.JPG

Particle-free air with the volume flow VR circulates through an annular passage around the suction nozzle. Thus, according to Bernoulli, a volume flow VAn is generated at the suction nozzle.The dilution factor VF is calculated according to the following formula

Verdünnungssysteme Formel2.png

Representative dilution of particle size distribution of the Palas® dilution systems by cascading

VDI report no. 1973 from 2007 proved metrologically that a reproducible aerosol dilution is possible with the Palas® dilution systems down to VF 100,000.

Simple functional test on-site

With this simple test set-up, the Palas® cascaded dilution systems can be checked by anyone themselves: Firstly a particle measurement is performed with one dilution step. Here it is important that the aerosol concentration, e.g. lab air, to be measured does not exceed the coincidence limit (maximum detectable aerosol concentration). In the second step, the dilution step to be tested is connected in series (cascaded). To check the dilution factor of the test step (position 2), the total particle count form the measurement in position 1 is divided by the total particle count from position 2.

Experimental setup


Position 1: Lab air


Position 2: Lab air

The VKL 100 serves to measure coincidence-free with the OPC; the VKL 10 is tested.

Measurement example

Measurement example  (2) Calculation of the dilution factor: Formel2.png

Provided the first measurement is not affected by a coincidence error and the dilution system under test is working (not soiled), a dilution factor of almost 10 is determined. If this should not be the case, there was possibly coincidence in measurement 1. In this case the aerosol concentration has to be decreased or a further dilution step used. Another possibility would be that the dilution step to be tested is soiled. In this case the device has to be cleaned and the test repeated.

characteristics dilution systems.JPG (2)

Table 1: Technical characteristics of Palas® dilution systems


  • The dilution systems from Palas® are characterized unambiguously. This is documented with a calibration certificate for each individual device.
  • The dilution steps deliver a temporally constant, representative dilution with the factors 10 and 100.
  • The dilution systems can be cascaded with the factors 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000
  • Low compressed air consumption, e.g. just 128 l/minwith a dilution factor of 10,000 with four VKL 10 systems
  • The dilution steps are combinable with all common particle counters.
  • These cascaded dilution systems can be tested by the users themselves with a simple test set-up.
  • Isobaric dilution up to 10 bar overpressure / isothermal dilution up to 120°C with the VKL 10 E, VKL 10 ED, KHG 10 and KHG 10 D dilution systems
  • Simple functional test on-site


Weight Approx. 4 kg
Isokinetic suction nozzles 0.028 – 0.06 l/min, 0.23 – 0.5 l/min, 0.6 – 1.6 l/min, 2 – 5 l/min, 28 l/min => 15 – 37 l/min
Maximum particle size < 2 µm (for dusts)
Volume flow (clean air)

17 – 45 l/min
Volume flow (suction flow) 0.15 – 0.5 l/min
Compressed air supply 4 – 8 bar
Dilution factor 1 : 100
Special features Cascadable
Dimensions 100 • 245 • 100 mm


  • Aerosol measurement technology: test aerosols from filters and inertial separators
  • Separation efficiency determination with counting measuring methods, e.g. HEPA/ULPA filters
  • Leak test and acceptance measurements of clean rooms, isolators and safety work benches
  • Inhalation toxicology
  • Quality control of respirator masks and filter cartridges


Brief Description
Brief product description in two-pages as PDF
Product Description
Detailed product description as PDF


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